Cloud computing has revolutionized the world, opening up new horizons with bright potential due to its performance, accessibility, low cost, and many other benefits. Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage (cloud storage) and computational power. Cloud computing refers to data centers accessible to numerous customers over the Internet. It has the ability to utilize computing resources at a low cost and fast speed. Cloud data security is becoming increasingly important as we shift our devices, data centers, business processes, and other assets to the cloud. Comprehensive security policies, corporate security culture, and cloud security solutions are used to ensure the level of cloud data security. Many techniques exist to protect data communication in the cloud environment, including encryption, which is the primary component of data security and the mechanism by which data or message transmission confidentiality and integrity are achieved. Current researchers have focused on genetics-based cryptography; genetics has been implemented in cryptography for data computation, storage, and transmission. This survey paper analyzes the new type of cryptographic approaches based on genetic science to generate robust sub-keys and robust cryptographic techniques based on homologous genetics (DNA, RNA, and mRNA) to improve security in the cloud. This work reviews several approaches based on genetic cryptography and their applications and drawbacks. In addition, the paper introduces the architecture of cloud computing along with the fundamental challenges of cloud computing applications.